The absorbance (OD) of every test was finally measured at a wavelength of 450?nm. localization. Unlike the scholarly research on human being cancers, the concentrations of P53 in the serums of MD contaminated chicken had been considerably less than the control group. Conclusions The p53 mutations had been apparent in the introduction of MD. P53 and P53 antibody level in serum is actually a useful marker in the monitoring and analysis of MD. strong course=”kwd-title” Keywords: Mareks disease, p53, P53 antibody Background Mareks disease (MD) can be a lymphoproliferative neoplastic disease due to the Tianeptine sodium poultry Mareks disease pathogen (MDV or called Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2). Chlamydia due to this pathogen can lead to lymphocyte proliferation, tumor formation, immunosuppression, paralysis, and mononuclear cell infiltration in peripheral nerves, gonads, and immune organs [1, 2]. As one of the most highly contagious tumor diseases in chickens, the data of OIE  reported by about half of the world has shown that this disease accounts for the loss of up to 1C2?billion US dollars annually in the global poultry industry . Described often as the guardian of the genome  and the cellular gatekeeper , p53 is the most relevant and important tumor suppressor gene with the highest mutation frequency in human and Tianeptine sodium animal tumor diseases . The chicken p53 gene has a full-length open reading frame, 5 and 3 untranslated regions, and a polyadenylation signal, which encodes 367 amino acids. These amino acids share a 47% homology to the amino acids of human P53 . p53 is divided into the wild type and the mutant type. The wild type is a normal tumor suppressor gene, while the mutant p53 is an oncogene transformed from a tumor suppressor gene due to spatial conformational change. As a result, the mutant P53 protein losses its ability in regulating cell growth, apoptosis, and DNA repair  which often a prerequisite for tumorigenesis and disease progression . The proportion of p53 mutations in tumor tissue varies between 10C100% . The wild type P53 has a very short half-life while the mutant P53 protein is prolonged. This abnormality of P53 can lead to the accumulation of P53 antibody in serum as well as the P53 protein in tumor tissue . Several studies have demonstrated that the P53 antibody plays a predictive role in tumorigenesis and its manifestation in serum is an early event in the development of malignant tumors in humans [11C13]. The level of P53 antibody in serum correlates significantly with common clinical neoplastic diseases, but it has been barely detectable in the serum of healthy subjects . This correlation may also exist in chicken and currently, there is a knowledge gap concerning the Rabbit Polyclonal to DIL-2 role of mutant p53 in Mareks disease in chicken. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of p53 as a tumor marker in assisting the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of MD. Results Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of p53 expression Histopathological examination revealed the evidence of liver cells undergoing necrosis in the infected SPF chicken. Such liver tissues demonstrated focal infiltration and hyperplasia of lymphoid tumor cells (Fig.?1a). In addition, the lymphoid follicle in the bursa of Fabricius was atrophied; diffuse infiltration and proliferation of lymphoid tumor cells between the follicles were observed (Fig.?1b). In the livers of the clinically infected chickens, the cytoplasm of the lymphoid tumor cells underwent multifocal proliferation, which was stained brown by the immunohistochemical (IHC) (Fig.?2a). Positive staining was also detected in the tumor cells in the spleen and the bursa of Fabricius tissues (Fig.?2b and c). In contrast, no positive stained cells were observed in the control group (Fig.?2d). Open in a separate window Fig. 1 Histopathological observation of diseased chickens infected with MDV. a Different sizes and shapes of focal infiltration and hyperplasia of lymphoid tumor cells were observed in the liver tissues (HE, 400). b?Diffuse infiltration and proliferation of lymphoid tumor cells between the follicles were observed in the bursa of Fabricius (HE, 400) Open in a separate window Fig. 2 Immunohistochemical staining of p53 in infected chickens. a?Liver Tianeptine sodium – lymphoid tumor cells with cytoplasm expression (HE, 400). b?Spleen – lymphoid tumor cells Tianeptine sodium with cytoplasm expression (HE, 400). c?Bursa of Fabricius – lymphoid tumor cells with cytoplasm expression (HE, 400). d?Liver – Negative controls were incubated with PBS (HE, 400) Mutations in the p53 The mutation rate of p53 was 60% in the infected poultry..