Next the membranes were washed many times with TBST, and the proteins were visualized by incubation with substrate solution (0.33?mg/ml of nitro blue tetrazolium, 0.17?mg/ml of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate in 100?mM TrisCHCl, pH 9.5, 100?mM NaCl and 5?mM MgCl2), prepared according to Leary et al. cells against damages induced by lead. The obtained results revealed, that melatonin significantly increases BY-2 cells proliferation and protects BY-2 cells against death. Moreover, the conducted analyses showed for the first time that the protective effect of melatonin may be connected not only with its antioxidant properties but also with its direct impact on elevating BI-1 expression and lead-induced programmed cell death (PCD) restriction. Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1). Although no gene homologues coding BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) have been identified in herb genomes, Xu and Reed (1998) isolated a mammalian gene of MethADP sodium salt BI-1 that suppressed BAX-induced cell death in yeast. BI-1 is an evolutionary conserved, endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein that represents an ancient cell death regulator that potentially regulates PCD in all eukaryotes. As endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways have been suggested to play important roles not only in the control of ER homeostasis but also in other biological processes such as the response to pathogens and abiotic stress in plants, BI-1 might function as a swich-factor controlling the convergence point that modulates the level of pro-survival and pro-death signals under multiple stress conditions (Watanabe and Lam 2009). Overexpression of MethADP sodium salt BI-1 results in protection against apoptosis induced by certain types of stimuli in mammalian cells, whereas downregulation of BI-1 by an antisense construct promotes apoptosis of some tumour lines (Xu and Reed 1998). Moreover, overexpression of herb BI-1 homologues from and rice (Kawai et al. 1999) can also suppress the BAX-mediated cell death in yeast. Furthermore, AtBI-1 overexpression in inhibits the BAX-mediated cell death in planta (Kawai-Yamada et al. 2001, 2004). Downregulation of BI-1 in cultured rice cells upon challenge with a fungal elicitor from the rice blast pathogen (L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) growing under Pb-stress and explain the biochemical bases of melatonin-induced herb resistance to heavy metals. Taking up the theme of evaluation the beneficial effect of exogenous melatonin on Pb-exposed BY-2 cells we did not expect that increase in cell stress resistance will be connected with a change in the expression level of BI-1 proteinan accepted regulator of herb cell death. Materials and methods Herb material In experiments sterile suspension in vito cell Mouse monoclonal to CD13.COB10 reacts with CD13, 150 kDa aminopeptidase N (APN). CD13 is expressed on the surface of early committed progenitors and mature granulocytes and monocytes (GM-CFU), but not on lymphocytes, platelets or erythrocytes. It is also expressed on endothelial cells, epithelial cells, bone marrow stroma cells, and osteoclasts, as well as a small proportion of LGL lymphocytes. CD13 acts as a receptor for specific strains of RNA viruses and plays an important function in the interaction between human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and its target cells culture of L. cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY 2) were used. Tobacco BY 2 cells were cultivated in Linsmaier and Skoog basal medium (LS) (Linsmaier and Skoog 1965) supplemented with 30?g?l?1 sucrose, 0.2?mg?l?1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d; synthetic auxin), MethADP sodium salt 1?mg?l?1 thiamine, 0.1?g?l?1 myoinositol and 10?2 M KH2PO4. The initial pH of the medium was established as 5.3. Experimental treatments BY-2 cells of the base culture at the stationary growth phase (day 7th) were passaged into the fresh LS medium as a control (C) and LS with melatonin (MEL) its final concentration in medium: 200?nM. The optimal dose of melatonin was chosen experimentally. In the middle of logarithmic phase of growth (day 4th) Pb(NO3)2 was added to LS (Pb) and LS with melatonin (MEL?+?Pb) media to the final Pb2+ concentration 15?M. Thus, experiments were performed in the following variants: (i) C: BY-2 cells cultured on LS medium; (ii) MEL: BY-2 cells cultured on LS medium with melatonin added from the beginning of culture; (iii) Pb: BY-2 cells cultured on LS medium with Pb2+ added in the 4th day of culture and (iv) MEL?+?Pb: BY-2 cells cultured on LS medium with melatonin added from the start of culture and stressed with Pb2+ added in the 4th day of culture. The cultures were maintained to the 7th day (stationary phase of the control cells growth). The applied concentration of lead was chosen after measurement of LC50 at the 7th day. Determination of cell growth and viability The cell number was decided with the use of a Fuchs-Rosenthal haemocytometer under a light microscope; additionally the number of lifeless cells was assessed after selective staining with.